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Patients Against Lymphoma

 

CAM & Life Style > S - Z 

Last Update: 04/06/2015

TOPICS
Selenium | St. John's Wort | Silymarin | Sugar restriction?  | Turmeric | UV blood irradiation (UBI)?

Vitamins:  Vitamin A | Vitamin C | Vitamin D | Vitamin E | VitexicarpinWhey Protein | Yoga | Zinc 

To avoid potential adverse interactions, be sure to let your health care provider know
if you use any type of complementary therapy.

Selenium
About selenium -
Linus Pauling Institute - lpi.oregonstate.edu 
Natural sources:  
brazil nuts, fish, shellfish, red meat, grains, eggs, chicken and garlic
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Selenium

"is an essential trace mineral in the human body . This nutrient is an important part of antioxidant enzymes that protect cells against the effects of free radicals that are produced during normal oxygen metabolism. The body has developed defenses such as antioxidants to control levels of free radicals because they can damage cells and contribute to the development of some chronic diseases. Selenium is also essential for normal functioning of the immune system and thyroid gland." - NIH

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About selenium - Linus Pauling Institute  lpi.oregonstate.edu 
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Serum Selenium in Lymphoma ~ Correspondence jco.org 
 
"These data do not lend support to the hypothesis that a low selenium status enhances the risk of developing AML, but indicate that serum selenium levels in patients with AML are mostly dependent on tumor activity."
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Selenium May Raise Skin Cancer Risk -  Reuters.com Oct_03
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Presentation serum selenium predicts for overall survival, dose delivery, and first treatment response in aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

J Clin Oncol. 2003 Jun 15;21(12):2335-41.
PMID: 12805335 - PubMed | Related abstracts
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Selenomethionine regulation of p53 by a ref1-dependent redox mechanism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Oct 29;99(22):14548-53. PMID: 12357032 - PubMed
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Selenomethionine in the inhibition of a transplantable murine lymphoma: reflection on hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes. Tumour Biol. 1996;17(2):102-9. PMID: 8658012 - PubMed 
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Serum selenium concentrations in patients with newly diagnosed lymphoid malignancies. Haematologica. 1995 Nov-Dec;80(6):505-11. PMID: 8647514 - PubMed
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Protein kinase C as a molecular target for cancer prevention by selenocompounds. Nutr Cancer. 2001;40(1):55-63. PMID: 11799924 - PubMed
St. John's Wort
Questions and related abstracts
Review
-Healthwwweb
Background: HerbMed.org

 

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St. John's Wort

(Hypericum perforatum)

A commonly used to treat depression. The active ingredient of this herb is Hypericin. 

CAUTION: Significant drug interactions have been identified for this herb, including interactions with chemotherapy agents, such as Etoposide.

Questions:
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Does St John's Wort have clinically useful anti-lymphoma properties?

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What is its potential as a photodynamic therapy agent?

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Can St. John's Wort inhibit activity of chemotherapy drugs?  

Related Abstracts: 
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Incidence and clinical relevance of the interactions and side effects of Hypericum preparations.

Phytomedicine. 2001 Mar;8(2):152-60. Review. PMID: 11315759
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Hypericin and lymphoma related studies - Medline search
Silymarin 
(Milk Thistle)
Questions and related abstracts
Background:
HerbMed.org
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Silymarin

(Silybum marianum / Milk Thistle)

Milk Thistle is an herb that has demonstrated protective effects on the liver and kidneys.

Human/Clinical Studies http://bit.ly/hAIdta  some showing improvement in liver function based on AST and ALT, blood markers that when elevated indicate impaired liver (hepatic) function.

Specific to our concerns:

"In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 50 children who were undergoing treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia and who had chemotherapy -related hepatotoxicity were randomly assigned to receive silymarin or placebo for a 4-week period. 

Four weeks following completion of the intervention, the silymarin group had a significantly lower aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (P = .05) and a trend towards a significantly lower alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (P = .07).

Fewer chemotherapy dose reductions were observed in the silymarin group compared to the placebo group; however, the difference was not significant. No adverse events were reported."

==
A few caveats:

* It was a small study (n=50) and so the protective effects of milk thistle on liver function will require validation in confirmatory studies.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20014183

* The protective effects may be dependent on the types of drugs used?

* Does this herb interact with chemo drugs ... effecting potency?
http://www.herbmed.org/herbs/herb120.htm#Category6Herb120 

* In the Consumer Labs test reports on milk thistle products
(Initial Posting: 12/2/09 Last Update: 4/1910)  ONLY Jarrow Formulas was approved based on minimum expectation of 70% silymarin in extract
 
Related Abstracts: 
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Scambia G, De Vincenzo R, Ranelletti FO, et al. Antiproliferative effect of silybin on gynaecological malignancies: Synergism with cisplatin and doxorubicin. Eur J Cancer 1996;32A:877–82.  abstract
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Invernizzi R, Bernuzzi S, Ciani D, Ascari E. Silymarine during maintenance therapy of acute promyelocytic leukemia. Haemotologia 1993;78:340–1.
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Gaedeke J, Fels LM, Bokemeyer C, Mengs U, et al. Cisplatin nephrotoxicity and protection by silibinin. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1996;11:55–62. abstract

Sugar restriction?

The notion that restricting sugar intake in our diet can inhibit the growth of cancer cells is based on reports that cancer cells are hungry for glucose. 

 That diet can influence the growth of some cancers (such as the promoting effect of saturated fats on prostate cancer) helps to perpetuate this popular theory.

Unfortunately, sugar restriction is not a plausible way to slow the growth of cancer, because glucose is needed for our survival and is regulated by the body and would be manufactured by the liver  if depleted by strict dietary practices (Furman).  

That said, we might imagine a future drug that selectively prevents the uptake of glucose in the cancer cells that would be effective as a treatment.

Finally, lymphoma is thought to be antigen-driven.  This is due to the normal activities of lymphocytes (immune cells) is to react to antigen, dividing in response to an infection.

This is not to suggest that we should eat donuts with abandon.  An occasional dessert will not make a difference in how the abnormal cells grow.  We have enough to worry about without denying ourselves the simple pleasures of life.

(Karl)

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Sugar (glucose) restriction?

"I think that it is important to dispel once and for all the idea that eating sugar feeds cancer cells. The body, more or less, converts everything into what it needs, including sugar. If one were to stop eating sugar, your liver would just make the sugar from proteins and fatty acids. The key to remember with regard to cancer and nutrition is eating well. Nothing more."

~ Rick Furman, MD

Dr. Don Ayer, professor of Oncological sciences at the Huntsman Cancer Institute wrote:

"Cancer patients should eat a balanced diet to promote good health. Cutting out sugar would not inhibit tumor growth, Even with a sugar-free diet, there still would be plenty of glucose in the blood to feed cancer. 

Report: http://www.sltrib.com/news/ci_13179951

"Sugar is a carbohydrate. It's a source of fuel or energy. Your whole body system needs carbohydrates as well as all cells, including cancer cells. A healthy, balanced diets includes the majority of the calories coming from carbohydrates, therefore you can't cut out carbs 100%. That would only leave you with fats, protein, and alcohol."  

Source: www.medicinenet.com/ 

Stanford Dietitian Discusses Nutrition and Cancer Myths and Legends - YouTube 
Turmeric
(curcumin)
Turmeric is a common root spice.  Curcumin is a compound of interest found in the root.
Recommended resource:
The Natural Pharmacist
Also see:
HerbMed.org
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Turmeric (Curcumin)

A widely used tropical herb in the ginger family. 1  "Curcumin is a natural compound derived from turmeric Curcuma longa.

The limited
bioavailability of the active compound is a major challenge to the evaluation of the compound to treat disease.

See Science Blogs: Curcumin For Cancer: Part 1 AND Part 2

CAUTION: Significant inhibition of chemotherapy agents may apply.  
See Curcumin & Chemotherapy Alert

Bioavailability? 

"
Clinical trials in humans indicate that the systemic bioavailability of orally administered curcumin is relatively low. ...  Curcumin metabolites may not have the same biological activity as the parent compound. 

In one study, conjugated or reduced metabolites of curcumin were less effective inhibitors of inflammatory enzyme expression in cultured human colon cells than curcumin itself (4) . In a clinical trial conducted in Taiwan, serum curcumin concentrations peaked 1-2 hours after an oral dose, and peak serum concentrations were 0.5, 0.6 and 1.8 micromoles/liter at doses of 4, 6 and 8 g/day, respectively (5). Curcumin could not be detected in serum at lower doses than 4 g/day. More recently, a clinical trial conducted in the UK, found that plasma curcumin, curcumin sulfate and curcumin glucuronide concentrations were in the range of 10 nanomoles/liter (0.01 micromole/liter) one hour after a 3.6 g dose of oral curcumin (6). 

Curcumin and its metabolites could not be detected in plasma at lower doses than 3.6 g/day. Curcumin and its glucuronidated and sulfated metabolites were also measured in urine at a dose of 3.6 g/day. There is some evidence that orally administered curcumin accumulates in gastrointestinal tissues. When colorectal cancer patients took 3.6 g/d of curcumin orally for 7 days prior to surgery, curcumin was detected in malignant and normal colorectal tissue (7). 

In contrast, curcumin was not detected in the liver tissue of patients with liver metastases of colorectal cancer after the same dose of oral curcumin (8), suggesting that oral curcumin administration may not effectively deliver curcumin to tissues outside the gastrointestinal tract."

- Linus Pauling Institute

Questions:
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Does supplementation with curcumin have clinically useful effects?

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What serum levels are required to have clinical effects?

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Does curcumin inhibit the efficacy of chemotherapy?

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What is the bioavailability of curcumin when taken orally?  
 
Does it reach blood levels in concentrations needed to make a difference?

Related Resources & Abstracts: 

  1. About turmeric - The Natural Pharmacist
  2. Science Blogs: Curcumin For Cancer: Part 1 AND Part 2
  3. On bioavailability: 

    Topic Search:  ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

    Detection of curcumin and its metabolites in hepatic tissue and portal blood of patients following oral administration. 
    Br J Cancer. 2004 Mar 8;90(5):1011-5. PMID: 14997198
    Pharmacodynamic and Pharmacokinetic Study of Oral Curcuma Extract in Patients with Colorectal Cancer - full text - clincancerres.aacrjournals.org 
    Metabolism of the Cancer Chemopreventive Agent Curcumin 
    in Human and Rat *Intestine* - aacrjournals.org 
  4. Curcumin Content of Turmeric and Curry Powders - http://www.leaonline.com/
    Nutrition and Cancer 2006, Vol. 55, No. 2, Pages 126-131 
  5. Curcumin, a detailed report - Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration - inchem.org
  6. Bioavailablity? "Curcumin's lack of activity may be that it is very poorly absorbed by the digestive tract, according to animal studies"  - aegis.com
  7. Curcumin causes the growth arrest and apoptosis of B cell lymphoma by downregulation of egr-1, c-myc, bcl-XL, NF-kappa B, and p53. Clin Immunol. 1999 Nov;93(2):152-61. PMID: 10527691
  8. Curcumin AND lymphoma - related PubMed abstracts
UV blood irradiation (UBI)? 
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UV blood irradiation (UBI)?

Scienceblogs.com  

"The claim is that this treatment somehow "boosts the immune system." This is a claim that is utterly without basis in science. Just thinking about it should suggest to you why it would be unlikely to "boost immune function." UV light is a DNA-crosslinker, making it a mutagen. 

Normally it doesn't have access to your blood, because your skin stops it. All that's being accomplished by UV-irradiating blood is to induce DNA crosslinking in the lymphocytes and monocytes in the blood, as well as potentially degrading some of the proteins in the cells and plasma. Depending on how much UV radiation is used, that could be harmful or indifferent, but it's unlikely to be beneficial."
Vitamins

Vitamins: Reports from Recent Studies

In the News and Reports:

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Long-term Antioxidant Supplementation  No Effect on Health-related Quality of Life The Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Primary Prevention SU.VI.MAX Trial
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Medscape, 2012: Vitamin E Supplements May Raise the Risk for Prostate Cancer
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Medscape: Vitamin Supplements Associated With Increased Risk for Death
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Medscape: Vitamins and Mortality: An Interview With Jaakko Mursu
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Medscape video: Dietary Supplements and Mortality Rates in Women: A Cautionary Tale
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Medscape: Vitamins and Mortality: In Defense of Supplements
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Medscape: Mortality in Randomized Trials of Antioxidant Supplements for Primary and Secondary Prevention: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

.... Why do supplements increase mortality and not decrease event rates when a diet high in antioxidants (fruits, vegetables, and fiber) has benefit? One explanation is the bias that better diets are associated with overall better health and health habits. A second is that supplements may block the absorption of naturally occurring vitamins. Third is that supplemental vitamins may have a negative effect, such as a reduction in high-density lipoprotein-2 by vitamin E"
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Medscape: Trash the Vitamins: Convince Your Patients A Best Evidence Review 

"These recommendations against the routine use of supplements are grounded in good evidence. A Cochrane intervention review of 77 randomized controlled trials with 232,550 participants found no evidence to recommend antioxidant supplementation for primary or secondary prevention of mortality.

Resources

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Vitamins - umm.edu/
 
An in-depth report on the dietary importance of vitamins and other nutrient.   
Vitamin A
Questions and related abstracts

Background:

Supplementwatch.com
Natural sources:  
liver, dairy foods,  beta-carotene-containing vegetables
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Vitamin A (Retinoids)

"Retinoids are derivatives of vitamin A. Their possible use in the prophylaxis and treatment of cancer is being actively explored." - CancerWeb

The body converts carotinoids into Vitamin A. This may be the safest way to obtain this vitamin.

CAUTION: High doses of Vitamin A can be toxic.  See Alerts

Questions:
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Can supplementing with Vitamin A help or harm patients fighting lymphomas?

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Can vitamin A be toxic?

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Are retinoids potentially useful adjuvants to immunotherapies?

Related Abstracts: 
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Vitamin A / Retinol - BC Cancer Agency 

"In sum, there is little evidence to support the idea that, within the wide range of doses bordered by deficiency and toxicity, modulating preformed vitamin A intake will have any substantial cancer-preventive effect." (International Agency for Research on Cancer) There is insufficient evidence that vitamin A is effective in treating or preventing cancer. High doses of vitamin A may be toxic.

(See Toxicity/Risks section below)
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Regulation of apoptosis induced by the retinoid N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide and effect of deregulated bcl-2. Blood. 1995 Jan 15;85(2):359-67. PMID: 7811993
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Retinoids and b-cell lymphoma - Related abstracts (Medline) 
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Vitamin A toxicity - eMedicine | Merck Manual
Vitamin C
Questions and related abstracts

Background:

Supplementwatch.com
Natural sources:  a variety of fruits and vegetables
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Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)

There is considerable controversy about supplementing with large doses of Vitamin C (ascorbic acid). As with all vitamins, vitamin C essential for good health, but advantages of high doses has not been demonstrated and could be counterproductive. 

Related Abstracts: 
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Vitamin C and Cancer: What can we conclude 1609 patients and 33 years later   http://scr.bi/LyQudp
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One study (2008) in humans with cancers has been completed. The toxicity profile was good but there were no responses, unfortunately: 

Phase I clinical trial of i.v. ascorbic acid in advanced malignancy. Ann Oncol. 2008 Jul 25.P MID: 18544557
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Vitamin C May Reduce Response to Chemotherapy - Medscape 2008
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Vitamin C for Cancer?  By Seed prodded, or there's less to these studies than meets the eye - scienceblogs.com 

Category: Alternative medicine • Cancer • Clinical trials  Posted on: April 11, 2006 8:46 AM  OK, I've been prodded enough!   Yes, I've been aware of the study purporting to present good anecdotal case reports showing that there might be something to the hypothesis that megadoses of vitamin C can cure cancer where other therapies fail."
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Re-Assessment Urged for Intravenous Vitamin C and Cancer - Medpage 2006
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Facts and Myths -  cansa.co.za 
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Unconventional Therapies - Vitamin C / Ascorbic Acid - bccancer.bc.ca
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Roles of vitamin C in radiation-induced DNA damage in presence and absence of copper. Chem Biol Interact. 2001 Jul 31;137(1):75-88. PMID: 11518565  - PubMed
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Ascorbic acid recycling in Nb2 lymphoma cells: implications for tumor progression. Free Radic Biol Med. 1999 Jan;26(1-2):136-47. PMID: 9890649
Vitamin D
Questions and related abstracts

Background:

Supplementwatch.com
Natural sources:  Cod liver oil, vitamin D–fortified foods. Traces in egg yolks, butter. Majority created in body with sunlight exposure to skin. Colecalciferol (vitamin D3) is the animal form.
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Vitamin D

Other names: Vitamin D2; Vitamin D3; Calcidiol (25-hydroxy-vitamin D);
Calcifidiol (25-hydroxy-vitamin D); Calcitriol (1,25 dihydroxy-vitamin D)
Formal name: 25-hydroxy-vitamin D; 1,25 dihydroxy-vitamin D; 25-hydroxycholecalciferol

"Vitamin D is a steroid hormone that is obtained through the diet or produced by the action of sunlight on vitamin D precursors in the skin." 

In recent studies low levels of vitamin D have been found to be associated with poorer prognosis.  Whether vitamin D levels influence the risk, or is a marker showing the risk, is not known.

Supplementation with vitamin D seems reasonable for anyone with low levels - determined by blood tests - in order to support general health. 

However it should be noted that lymphoma patients may metabolize vitamin D differently than healthy people, potentially leading to hypercalcemia (a serious condition involving too much calcium in the blood).

Therefore, we think it's important to discuss vitamin D supplementation with your doctor and to base the dose on blood levels determined by testing.  labtestsonline.org

Be aware that as of February 2013, Labtests online reports that "there is currently no consensus on the level which indicates deficiency."  

In the News:

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Vitamin D — Health Professional Fact Sheet https://bitly.com/1xRsO1D
 
Information for health professionals about Vitamin D, recommended intakes, sources, intake status, risks of inadequacy or excess, current research on Vitamin...
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Randomized study: Cholecalciferol in Improving Survival in Patients With
Newly Diagnosed Cancer With Vitamin D Insufficiency http://1.usa.gov/VPj3Ou 

To determine if vitamin D replacement in vitamin D insufficient patients
with newly diagnosed untreated lymphomas / CLL can improve event free
survival at 12 months to be equivalent to that of a control population of
vitamin D sufficient patients.


Lay Comment:  As best we can tell the rationale for the study is based on an observed association that a deficiency in this vitamin correlates with poorer outcomes ... but not an understanding of a mechanism of how vitamin D increases the risk of lymphoma (how it supports the survival or proliferation of the malignant cells).


An alternative hypothesis is that in higher-risk lymphoma the lymphoma cells (and/or hijacked bystander cells in the microenvironment) could take up circulating vitamin D, decreasing the levels in the blood.

... If true, supplementing with Vitamin D might not alter the risk, and, might increase the risk if this vitamin supports (indirectly or directly "feeds") the malignant process.

On the possible mechanism that might support instead of inhibit the malignant process:


"In parallel with the induction of antimicrobial agents such as cathelicidin, the suppression of TLR expression in this fashion might act to limit inflammatory T lymphocyte responses that would otherwise promote autoimmunity mediated by T-helper 1 (TH1) lymphocytes" ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

Caution cited in multiple articles on the topic:

Related articles:  

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Vitamin D test labtestsonline.org
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IOM: Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D http://bit.ly/fV2Ghh 

Over the last ten years, the public has heard conflicting messages about other benefits of these nutrients—especially vitamin D—and also about how much calcium and vitamin D they need to be healthy. 

To help clarify this issue, the U. S. and Canadian governments asked the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to assess the current data on health outcomes associated with calcium and vitamin D. The IOM tasked a committee of experts with reviewing the evidence, as well as updating the nutrient reference values, known as Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs).
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J Clin Oncol. 2010

Vitamin D insufficiency and prognosis in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2953973/
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J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009

Nonclassic Actions of Vitamin D
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2630868/ 
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A Practical Approach to Hypercalcemia - http://www.aafp.org/afp/20030501/1959.html   

"Vitamin D is a steroid hormone that is obtained through the diet or produced by the action of sunlight on vitamin D precursors in the skin. 

Calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D, is derived from successive hydroxylation of the precursor cholecalciferol, first in the liver (25-hydroxylation), then in the kidneys (1-hydroxylation). 

Adequate vitamin D is necessary for bone formation. However, the principal target for vitamin D is the gut, where it increases the absorption of calcium and phosphate. Thus, in vitamin D-mediated hypercalcemia, serum phosphate levels tend to be high."  

From The Truth About Vitamin D Toxicity
http://www.vitamindcouncil.org/vitaminDToxicity.shtml   

"Vitamin D hypersensitivity syndromes are often mistaken for vitamin D toxicity. The most common is primary hyperparathyroidism. Other syndromes occur when abnormal tissue subverts the kidney's normal regulation of endocrine calcitriol production. Aberrant tissues, usually granulomatous, convert 25(OH)D into calcitriol causing high blood calcium.

The most common such condition is sarcoidosis, oat cell carcinoma of the lung, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma but other illnesses can cause the syndrome and they can occur while the patient's 25(OH)D levels are normal or even low. 

For that reason, while rare, it is advisable to seek a knowledgeable physician's care when repleting your vitamin D system, especially if you are older, have sarcoidosis, cancer, or other granulomatous diseases. 

In such high-risk patients, periodic monitoring of 25(OH)D levels and serum calcium will alert the physician to the need to do more tests-such as calcitriol or PTH-and take further action.

From Lymphoma, Hypercalcemia, and the Sunshine Vitamin 
http://www.annals.org/cgi/content/full/121/9/709 

From Inability of Short-Term, Low-Dose Hydroxychloroquine
to Resolve Vitamin D-Mediated Hypercalcemia in
Patients with B-Cell Lymphoma 
http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/reprint/84/2/799.pdf  

"HYPERCALCEMIA complicates the clinical course of a substantial number of patients with widespread lymphoproliferative disorders, including lymphomas and the granuloma-forming diseases like sarcoidosis (1–5). In many instances, the underlying cause of hypercalcemia is the endogenous overproduction of the active vitamin D metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxyvitaminD(1,25-(OH)2D)."

Package alert for Fosomax plus D: 

"In addition, patients should talk to their doctor if they have conditions which may cause an overproduction of vitamin D (e.g., sarcoidosis, leukemia, lymphoma). Patients should tell their doctor about all medicines they are taking, including prescription and non-prescription medicines, vitamins and herbal supplements."

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Incidence and prognostic significance of hypercalcaemia in B-cell NHL ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/
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Abnormal synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in patients with malignant lymphoma  jcem.endojournals.org  
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1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and lymphoma - related abstracts, Medline
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Vitamin D metabolite-mediated hypercalcemia.
Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 1989 Sep;18(3):765-78. Review. PMID: 2673772
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A Practical Approach to Hypercalcemia - http://www.aafp.org/afp/20030501/1959.html 
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Unexpected actions of vitamin D: new perspectives on the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity  pubmedcentral.nih.gov
Vitamin E
Questions and related abstracts

Background:

supplementwatch.com
Natural sources:  Wheat germ oil, nuts, seeds, vegetable oils, whole grains, egg yolks, leafy green vegetables
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Vitamin E

An antioxidant that protects cell membranes and other fat-soluble parts of the body.

CAUTION: Excessive amounts can cause bleeding in some people.

In the News and Reports:

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Medscape: Vitamin E Supplements May Raise the Risk for Prostate Cancer
Related Abstracts: 
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Neuroprotective effect of vitamin e supplementation in patients treated with Cisplatin chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 2003 Mar 1;21(5):927-31. PMID: 12610195 - PubMed | Also see  Medscape free login req.
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Pletsityi KD, et al.  *[See Related Articles] [Effect of vitamin E on T and B lymphocyte numbers in the peripheral blood and various indicators of nonspecific immunity].  Vopr Pitan. 1984 Jul-Aug;(4):42-4. Russian.   PMID: 6333106; UI: 85018335.
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Dasgupta J, et al.  *[See Related Articles] Vitamin E-its status and role in leukemia and lymphoma. Neoplasma. 1993;40(4):235-40.  PMID: 8272150; UI: 94097440.
Whey protein
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Whey protein

Amino acids in whey protein may lessen side effects of cancer treatment.

CAUTION: It is not known if some of the amino acids found in high levels in Whey protein stimulate the growth of lymphoma cells during watch & wait status, or if it might inhibit apoptosis in malignant lymphocytes as it does in normal lymphocytes.  

Also see Alerts
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Immunocal -  U.S Physician's Desk Reference Listing - immunohelp.com
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Alternative Med perspective on:  apjohncancerinstitute.org
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Whey protein concentrate (WPC) and glutathione modulation in cancer treatment.
 
Anticancer Res. 2000 Nov-Dec;20(6C):4785-92. Review.
PMID: 11205219 - PubMed
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Enhancing effect of patented whey protein isolate (Immunocal) on cytotoxicity of an anticancer drug. Nutr Cancer. 2000;38(2):200-8. abstract

Yoga
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Yoga

An ancient Eastern tradition that usually includes regulated breathing, moving through various postures and meditation." 1
 

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Yoga Eases Sleep Problems Among Cancer Survivors http://healthday.com/Article.asp?AID=639340

Study found those who practiced it for four weeks after chemo slept better, used fewer sleep aids
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Study: Short course of Tibetan yoga improved sleep [significantly] in cancer patients -  eurekalert.org 
Zinc
Questions and related abstracts
Background:
supplementwatch.com
Natural sources:  meats, oysters, and whole grains.
 
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Zinc

Studies indicate that as lymphoma progresses, the ratio of copper to zinc rise. [3] Normalizing Zinc levels may protect against infection. 

CAUTION: Blood tests may be required if using high doses of Zinc.  Please consult with your doctor.  High serum levels of Zinc can impair immune function; and  some studies indicate that high serum levels of Zinc can inhibit apoptosis [1], (programmed cell death), which is the goal of many treatments for lymphoma.
 

  1. The influence of zinc on apoptosis. (preclinical)
    Ann Clin Lab Sci. 1995 Mar-Apr;25(2):134-42. Review. PMID: 7785963 - PubMed
  2. Sahin G, Ertem U, Duru F, Birgen D, Yuksek N. *[See Related Articles]

    High prevalence of chronic magnesium deficiency in t cell lymphoblastic leukemia and chronic zinc deficiency in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and malignant lymphoma. Leuk Lymphoma. 2000 Nov;39(5-6):555-62. PMID: 11342338
  3. Rosas R, Poo JL, Montemayor A, Isoard F, Majluf A, Labardini J. * Related Articles Utility of the copper/zinc ratio in patients with lymphoma or acute or chronic leukemias]. Rev Invest Clin. 1995 Nov-Dec;47(6):447-52. Spanish. PMID: 8850142
  4. Zinc and immune function.
    Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002 Aug;56 Suppl 3:S20-3. Review. PMID: 12142956 - PubMed
  5. Zinc enhances the expression of interleukin-2 and interleukin-2 receptors in HUT-78 cells by way of NF-kappaB activation. J Lab Clin Med. 2002 Oct;140(4):272-89. PMID: 12389026 - PubMed
  6. Copper Deficiency Anemia [including from zinc supplementation] Is Not Uncommon in a Hematology Practice. - ASH 2005
 
Disclaimer:  The information on Lymphomation.org is not intended to be a substitute for 
professional medical advice or to replace your relationship with a physician.
For all medical concerns,  you should always consult your doctor. 
Patients Against Lymphoma, Copyright © 2004,  All Rights Reserved.